– Food Balance Sheets, 2020. FAO
– 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study – Gustavsson J, Cederberg C, Sonesson U, Van Otterdijk R, Meybeck A. Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2011.
– NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19· 2 million participants. The Lancet 2016; 387(10026): 1377-96.
– Bechthold A, Boeing H, Schwedhelm C, et al. Food groups and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2019; 59(7): 1071-90.
– Schwingshackl L, Schwedhelm C, Hoffmann G, et al. Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer. International Journal of Cancer 2018; 142(9): 1748-58.
–Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Lampousi AM, et al. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. European Journal of Epidemiology 2017; 32(5): 363-75.
The relative risks used are all supported by statistically significant dose-response relationships in meta-analyses (graded with NutriGrade as moderate or high quality evidence) and the existence of plausible biological pathways, however there are caveats related to nutritional epidemiological studies, such as potential measurement error of dietary exposure.
This indicator was last updated in July 2020
This indicator involves a comparative risk assessment, linking food consumption data (adjusted for food waste to estimate exposure) from the food balance sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations with dietary and weight-related risk factors.